Frequently Asked Question (FAQ)

Please choose your preferred category. If you want to learn more, please contact us.

Category [129 Items]


【PY】While other companies can pyrolyze samples at the same temperature as the Frontier pyrolyzer, why don’t they guarantee the reproducibility of pyrograms?
We think that other companies do not guarantee the reproducibility in the specifications in the manual mode, because their reproducibilities of pyrograms are generally 20-30%, and its reliability is too poor to put it in the specifications.
Frontier Lab has developed a high precision temperature controller, with extensive optimization of relevant parts used, we thus are able to guarantee the reproducibility be less than 2% relative standard deviation by peek area ratios for trimer of polystyrene pyrolyzed at 550°C and internal standard (methyl stearate).
【PY】How do we know the pyrolyzer that we are currently using is working properly?
The pyrogram of polystyrene is used to monitor system performance. A polystyrene standard (P/N: PY1-4908) is included with each pyrolyzer. The standard includes 5% methyl stearate (5%). Analyze the standard and compare the pyrogram to the one shown in Chapter 8, Fig. 8.2 (Guarantee of basic performance) of the operation manual.
【PY】What is the rate of pyrolysis? How does it compare with Currie Point Pyrolyzers? How would the influences reflect in the final results?
The time it takes to heat the sample to 600⁰ in N2 using a vertical furnace is less than 100msec, as reported by Dr. Tsuge, Emeritus Professor of Nagoya University. Theoretically, the time will be reduced by one seventh in a helium atmosphere, and is, therefore, comparable to the rate achieved when using a Currie point foil. The actual rate of pyrolysis, the reproducibility and stability of the furnace temperature and the physicality (e.g. weight, density, distribution of the sample in the furnace, etc.) determine the reproducibility of the pyrogram. These factors also play a role in what pyrolzates are formed as well as their relative intensities.
In the case of Currie point devices, the temperature of the ferromagnetic foil increases instantly; however, the contact between the sample and sample holder is different in each run, which reduces the reproducibility of the pyrograms. In the case of pyrolyzers using a filament, the sample position in the quartz sample tube (id. 2 mm or less, length 30 mm) relative to the filament coils differs in each run, resulting in poor reproducibility.
【PY】What is the precision of the temperature control?
The furnace temperature is within +/- 0.1°C of the set point for Frontier’s Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer.
【PY】Does any adsorption occur in the pyrolyzer?
The pyrolysis tube is quartz, and the inner surface of the interface needle, which is located between the GC injection port and the pyrolyzer furnace, is deactivated with our Ultra ALLOY® technology, thus adsorption inside the pyrolyzer should be negligible. All pyrolyzers must meet stringent inertness specifications. Inertness of the entire GC system (i.e., from the pyrolyzer liner to the outlet of the separation column). The operator must also consider the possibility of system contamination when using the pyrolyzer. For example, if too much sample is placed in the sample cup the pyrolysis tube could be contaminated. Frontier recommends that a system check sample be analyzed daily. Over time the series of pyrograms will enable the operator to quickly ascertain system performance and determine when routine maintenance is necessary.
【PY】What is the purpose of the cooling gas used with the pyrolyzer? Is it required?
Cooling gas is required when using a Frontier multi-mode (a.k.a. Double Shot) pyrolyzer. The gas reduces the time required to cool the furnace temperature down to the initial temperature when using methods that require the temperature of the furnace to be cycled. On the other hand, a Single-Shot Pyrolyzer is used at a constant temperature and cooling gas is not required.
【PY】How much cooling gas is needed for the Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer? What grade of gas do you recommend? What is the actual cooling time?
The consumption of cooling gas is 7L/min at an inlet supply pressure of 500kPa. Compressed air with a mist-trap or industry grade compressed air or N2 can be used.
The EGA/PY-3030D pyrolyzer takes about 5 minutes to cool from 600 to 100°C.
The PY-2020iD pyrolyzer takes about 20 minutes to cycle from 600 to 100°C.
【PY】What is the difference in the final results between evolved gas analysis using the Pyrolyzer and a head-space sampler?
Because the pyrolyzer is designed to minimize cold spots in its flow path from the furnace to the GC injection port, a wide range of compounds from low boiling to high boiling compounds up to C40 compounds can be analyzed. The amount of sample required is several tens of milligrams; therefore, chemical species at as low as several ppb can be analyzed.
Although, head space samplers can handle several hundreds mg of samples, the thermal desorption of target compounds hidden inside the sample matrix is difficult. Because headspace sampling is normally limited to 200°C and the fact that most have a relatively long flow path from the sample heater to GC injection port, compounds analyzed by headspace sampler is generally limited to relatively low boiling compounds, up to C20.
【PY】There are three types of pyrolyzers: furnace, filament and Curie point. What are the differences?
The basic difference is how the sample is heated.
Furnace type: the sample is placed in a small, inert sample cup and dropped into a preheated furnace. The sample is instantly heated to the set-point temperature of the furnace.
Filament type: the sample is held in a quartz tube (id 2mm) that is placed in a filament coil(id 3mm). The filament is rapidly heated and the sample is heated by radiant heat from the filament. The “set point’ pyrolysis temperature, however, is often different from the actual sample temperature.
Curie point type: the sample is wrapped in a ferromagnetic sample holder (pyrofoil). The foil is heated by electromagnetic induction. The sample is heated by thermal radiation. The temperature attained depends on the composition of the ferromagnetic foil.
【PY】How does dead volume (un-swept areas of the sample flow path.) influence the data?
The flow path from the quartz pyrolysis tube to the GC injection port is designed so that dead volumes are minimized. During “final checkout”, we confirm that there is no peak broadening due to the presence of dead volume. A simple way to check for “dead” volume is to change the flow through the system while holding the column flow constant. The peak width at half height should be independent of the inlet flow, assuming the column flow is held constant. Contamination will have the appearance of ‘dead’ volume and it is much more likely to occur than the the sudden appearance of ‘dead’ volume.
【PY】Can we buy pyrolyzer furnace and controller separately?
Our pyrolyzer is marketed as an integrated package consisting of the heating furnace and the temperature controller. We therefore do not sell heating furnace or temperature controller separately.
【PY】When the sampler is removed from the pyrolyzer, will air get into the pyrolyzer? Does it cause any trouble?
The sampler on the top of the pyrolyzer is being purged with carrier gas at all times. When air gets into the system it is purged out of the system in a minute or two. For example, when the total carrier gas flow rate is 50 mL/min, any air in the system will be completely purged two minutes after the sampler is re-attached.
【PY】What is Single-Shot-GC analysis?
The sample cup is dropped into the preheated pyrolysis furnace, causing the sample to be instantly pyrolyzed. Pyrolyzates flow through the needle interface and into the GC injector. Sample vapors are split, a small portion of the pyrolyzates flow into a GC separation column for analysis. This technique is generally called, Flash Pyrolysis.
【PY】What is evolved gas analysis (EGA)?
The EGA technique is a simple thermal analysis technique, in which relatively volatile gases released by the continuous programmed heating of a sample are directly analyzed by GC/MS. The technique uses a deactivated metal tube (Ultra ALLOY, 0.15 mm id., 2.5 m in length) to connect the split/splitless injection port and the MS detector. The EGA thermograms obtained from this technique provide a wide range of information including details about additives, volatile components contained in sample, and decomposition temperature of the sample.
【PY】What is the Double-Shot-GC analysis?
This technique allows a polymer sample to be sequentially analyzed for volatile and polymer components. Volatile components contained in a sample are first desorbed at relatively low temperatures, this is followed by flash pyrolysis in which the sample polymer is dropped into the furnace heated at high temperatures and the base polymer is pyrolyzed.
【PY】What is heart-cut EGA-GC analysis?
This is an analytical technique in which only the evolved gases from a selected temperature zone of an EGA thermogram are introduced into a GC separation column for analysis. This is useful for the analysis of composite materials.
【PY】When fluorocarbon polymer is pyrolyzed, hydrogen fluoride (HF) is formed. Can the acid give adverse effects to the separation column?
The amount of HF formed by the pyrolysis of a sample quantity (about 0.2 mg) of fluorocarbon polymer is very limited. Our experience showed that there is almost no impact to the separation column. If you would not like to introduce the HF gas to the column, a piece of quartz wool dampened with 10% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH), followed by drying, is placed at the bottom of the glass insert in the GC injector (immediately before the separation column) will prevent the HF gas from being introduced to the column. This will trap the HF gas. However, please note that other acids are trapped here and therefore will not be analyzed.
【PY】When doing “manual” analysis, how do I retrieve the sample cup from the pyrolyzer furnace?
To recover a sample cup when using an Eco-Stick SF, remove the sampler and use the sample cup retriever (Eco-Pickup) supplied as a standard accessory.
When using an Eco-Stick LF, remove the sampler, then pull the Eco-Stick out using tweezers.
【PY】Is it all right to turn off the temperature controller immediately after the analysis?
Turning off the power to the temperature controller also turns off the cooling fan that cools the sample cup positioned at the top of the quartz pyrolysis tube. If the cooling fan stops, the temperature of the top seal on the quartz liner increases due to thermal conduction, and radiant heat from the hot pyrolysis furnace. Frontier recommends that the temperature controller be turned off only when the temperature of the pyrolysis furnace is >300°C.
【PY】How do I clean the quartz pyrolysis tube?
First remove the quartz pyrolysis tube from the furnace – refer to the video on the frontier web site for details. Polymeric residues and tars are removed by heating the quartz tube with a propane torch. Alternatively, heat the tube in an electric muffle furnace. Inorganic contaminants may be removed by acid treatment. If this is done, heat the quartz tube to “red” hot before using it.
【PY】How often should I clean the quartz pyrolysis tube?
Contamination of the pyrolysis tube is linked to the type and amount of sample being analyzed as well as the number of injections.. When ghost peaks are observed in the chromatograms or pyrograms, or the peak response is low due to adsorption on the tube surface, the quartz pyrolysis tube and/or interface needle must be cleaned or replaced.
【PY】Can I use MS as a detector in evolved gas analysis with air as a carrier gas?
MS can be used as a detector when air is used as the carrier gas, but note the followings:
1. GC oven temperature should be 200ºC or below. If it is higher, the inertness of EGA capillary tube (P/N: UADTM-2.5N) can be damaged.
2. This may cause some damage to the MS filament and shorten the life. The degree of damage depends on the filament thickness and oxidation resistance. Please check with the manufacturer of the MS. Use of quasi-air that is helium mixed with several percent of oxygen can extend the filament life.
3. FID detector poses no problems.
4. Customer takes all responsibilities to any damage caused by this.
【PY】When pyrolyzer is not used, should the carrier gas remain on?
There is no need to keep the carrier gas flow on.
【PY】If the pyrolyzer is not going to be used for a long time, does the furnace temperature need to be lowered?
We recommend that the furnace temperature be maintained at 200°C when not in use. This prevents the seals from contracting or expanding with changes in the working environment. This helps to maintain seal integrity.
【PY】Can I easily remove the pyrolyzer from a GC and install it on another GC?
This will be a very simple process. When moving the pyrolyzer to a different GC, we recommend that mounting brackets be installed on each GC in order to facilitate easy installation of the pyrolyzer.
【PY】Can a liquid sample be analyzed while pyrolyzer is installed on GC?
When analyzing a liquid sample, you can use a liquid sampler which is provided as a standard accessory. Inject sample using a normal micro syringe. The furnace of the pyrolyzer serves as injection port; therefore; set the furnace temperature 50°C higher than the GC injector. Better reproducibility will be obtained than is normally obtained by direct injections to the GC injector.
【PY】How do I remove the quartz pyrolysis tube?
Remove the pyrolyzer from the GC injection port, and loosen the sampler base nuts at the top of the pyrolyzer. Then loosen the interface union located at the bottom of the pyrolyzer. Now the quartz tube can easily be pulled out. See Operation Manual for details.
【PY】Does the pyrolyzer come with a control PC?
No. The pyrolyzer control software is downloaded to the PC used to control the GC or GC/MS.
【PY】What are the required specifications for the control PC?
A hard disk space of 10MB is required. See this page for supported OS. Any PC used for GC or GC/MS control should be adequate. The Pyrolyzer requires a USB port for their communication interface.
【PY】Is control software included with the pyrolyzer?
Yes. The control software comes standard with the pyrolyzer.
【PY】Does the pyrolyzer control software depend on the control software for the GC/MS?
The control software for Pyrolyzer is independent from that for GC/MS. However, “READY” and “START” signals from GC or GC/MS are shared with the pyrolyzer control software.
【PY】What is the difference between Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and Double-Shot Pyrolyzer (old model)?
The major difference is the method used to heat the furnace. The Double-Shot pyrolyzer uses a cartridge heater (max temp. 800ºC) while the Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer uses a smaller ceramic heater (max temp. 1050ºC). Using the ceramic heater reduces the cycle time of the furnace. It heats faster and it cools faster that an old style cartridge heater/metal block. The rate is three-times faster than that of the old style. See EGA/PY-3030D catalog for details.
【PY】Can I upgrade my Single-Shot Pyrolyzer (PY-3030S) to Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer (EGA/PY-3030D)?
Upgrading to a Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer is not possible.
【PY】The sampler (Double-Shot or Single-Shot) will no longer hold the sample cup stick. Can it be fixed?
This is caused by wear of the chuck that holds the sample cup stick. It needs to be sent to us for repair, or you can purchase the chuck from us and fix it by yourself. Call your local dealer or contact us directly.
【PY】Double-Shot sampler does not slide well. Would cleaning help?
The double shot sampler must be disassembled and a special lubricant must be applied on the sliding surface; therefore, it must be sent to us for repair. Check with your local dealer or contact us directly.
【PY】Is regular inspection of the Pyrolyzer needed?
Yes. Please consult the Pyrolyzer Operation Manual to see what regular maintenance is recommended. This is a good time to perform regular maintenance of your GC (injection port liner, seals, septum, etc.) for the best performance of the system.
【PY】Are yearly maintenance contracts available?
Yes. Call your local distributor (see listing on our website) or contact us using the website.
【PY】We would like to conduct evolved gas analysis (EGA). What other accessories do we need in addition to Pyrolyzer?
None. The Double-Shot Pyrolyzer or Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer is all that is needed to perform EGA.
【Rx】What types of feedstocks or samples can be introduced into the Tandem micro-Reactor?
Solid, liquids or gases can be introduced.
【Rx】What GC/MS is required to use the Tandem micro-Reactor?
A single quadrupole GC/MS is the most common. A mass spectrometer with a Turbo pump is recommended. A Split/Splitless inlet is required. (See compatibility chart for supported GC’s.)
【Rx】What gases are required to use the Tandem micro-Reactor?
Helium is the standard carrier gas. Compressed air or nitrogen is used for cooling the furnace.
【Rx】What optional gases can be introduced to the 2nd reactor which contains the catalyst bed?
The reaction gas can be selected by switching the Reactor Controller valve from three gases connected to the controller. Common gases used are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and Air, but others can also be used.
【Rx】What are the temperature ranges of the micro-Reactors?
Both reactors have the same operating temperature range: 40-800°C. They are independently controlled.
【Rx】What temperature profiles can be used for the 2nd reactor?
There are three temperature modes: Isothermal, Linear and Stepwise heating profiles.
【Rx】What are the required specifications for the control PC?
A hard disk space of 20MB is required. See this page for supported OS. Any PC used for GC or GC/MS control should be adequate. The Pyrolyzer requires a USB port for a communication interface.
【Rx】Is the control software included with the micro-Reactor?
Yes. The control software is included with the micro-Reactor.
【Rx】What is the difference between Tandem micro-Reactor and Single micro-Reactor?
A Tandem Micro-reactor consists of two reactors. The first is for the vaporization or pyrolysis of a liquid or solid sample; the second is where the catalyzed reformation occurs.
A single micro-Reactor consists of one reactor which most often is used in support of catalytic reactions. It is noted that only gas or liquid samples can be analyzed using the single micro reactor.

【Rx】How easily can a user remove a micro-Reactor from a GC and install it in another GC?
This is a very simple process. When using the reactor on multiple GC mainframes, we recommend that mounting brackets be installed on each GC. This greatly simplifies the installation. Also, each GC must have a remote start cable and modifications to accommodate the various gases and their control.
【Rx】How can a user pack the catalyst to a catalyst reaction tube?
The catalyst reaction tube (4 mm o.d.; 3 mm i.d.) is packed with a catalyst. Small amounts of quartz wool are placed at the bottom and top of the catalyst bed in order to keep it in position and to prevent shifting when there is a sudden change in pressure.
【Rx】Can a user upgrade the Single micro-Reactor to the Tandem micro-Reactor?
No. There is no upgrade path
【UV】What is the UV light irradiance of UV-1047Xe?
With xenon arc lamp (containing Hg), the UV irradiance at the end of the optical fiber is 60 mW/cm2 (600 W/m2) at 365 nm and 700 mW/cm2 (7000 W/cm2) in the range of 280 – 450 nm.

* Irradiance is defined as radiant flux incident on unit area of a surface.

【UV】How can I select the type of light source of UV-1047Xe?
Xenon (contains Hg) light source is standard, but you can choose an optional light source without Hg. The light spectrum of the lamp without Hg is similar to the one of the Sun; however, you can use the standard lamp for your tests without problems. Note that the UV irradiance of the lamp without Hg is approximately 1/10 of the lamp with Hg.
【UV】What is the major difference between UV-1045E and UV-1047Xe?
UV-1045E uses a deuterium lamp for the light source and the lamp emits UV light with wavelengths between 210 and 400 nm which are not included in the actual Sun light spectrum. On the other hand, The UV irradiance of UV-1047Xe is approximately 2000 times stronger than that of UV-1045E which uses a deuterium lamp. and has intense emission lines of Hg, in addition to the spectrum generated by xenon. The light intensity can be adjusted in the range between 1 to 100%.
【UV】How long should I irradiate polymer samples in a UV degradation study using micro UV irradiator?
Using UV-1047Xe, volatile degradation products are generally observed in UV irradiation of one hour. On the other hand, when UV-1045E is used, several times longer irradiation is needed due to the lower irradiance, depending on the type of polymers.
【UV】I would like to evaluate the degradation of polymers. How can I determined the irradiation time?
Many polymers exhibit volatile degradation products upon one hour irradiation of UV light. We recommend that you start with one hour irradiation, and increase or decrease the irradiation time depending on the results obtained. Also, depending on the amount and characteristics of the sample, the irradiance can be too strong, if so decrease the irradiation power (1 – 100%).
【UV】I would like to study polymer degradation. What should be the form of polymer samples?
If the polymer is soluble in a solvent, dissolve it in that solvent and place a few micro-litter of the solution in a sample cup for a good reproducibility. Samples in the form of powder or sheet can be used. For a sheet-like polymer, use Micro Puncher to punch out to discs of 0.5 to 2 mm in diameter.
【UV】The end of the optical fiber is prone to contaminations. What kind of maintenance is required?
After prolonged use, the end of optical fiber cable can be contaminated. Clean the end with a solvent such as methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane, etc. Take extra care not to damage the end of the fiber cable. If the fiber cable is broken, it needs to be replaced with a new fiber cable (P/N: UV1-7012, set of two cables per order).
【UV】When cryo-trapping volatile compounds, how much liquid nitrogen will be consumed at each measurement?
Approximately 25 mL of liquid nitrogen is consumed in one hour. Depending of the room temperature, 350 mL of liquid nitrogen in a Dewar lasts 8 to 12 hours.
【UV】Is there any safety precautions in continuous use of light source?
There is no special precautions; however, turn off the power only after cooling the unit with the cooling fan for 10 minutes or more. See also the operation manual.
【UV】What is the useful life of the UV lamp?
The useful life of the lamp is 3000 hours. At 3000 hours of use, the light intensity becomes approximately 60% of the initial value at 365 nm.
【UV】How does the light intensity decrease until the useful lamp life? Is there a built-in monitoring function?
The light intensity decreases smoothly in time. There is no monitoring function.
【UV】How do I replace the lamp?
The lamp can be replaced by customer. Consult the operation manual for the lamp replacement. Place an order for the replacement lamp to your local sales office.
【UV】Can it be used in Europe?
The product is complied with CE marking requirements, therefore; it can be used in Europe. A certificate is accompanied with the export products.

Complied standard: Safety standard IEC61010-1
EMC standard: IEC61326

【UV】Is the light source complied with RoHS directive?
It is listed as exclusion in use of the banned chemical substances prescribed in the Annex of the RoHS directive. The xenon arc lamp (contains Hg) contains Hg and Pb, and Hg is listed as other lamps in exclusion item 4, whereas Pb is listed as alloy component in the exclusion item 6.
【UV】Is the information on the compliance with CE marking requirements disclosed?
It can be disclosed on a limited base. Contact our customer service department for details.
【AS】Which models of GC are compatible with the Auto-Shot Sampler?
Please see this compatibility table.
【AS】Can a user easily remove and or install the Sampler on a Pyrolyzer?
Yes, you can install and uninstall the Sampler easily, No adjustment is needed.
【AS】Can I use the Sampler with a PY-2010D?
No, you cannot use it with the model.
【AS】Can I use the Sampler with a PY-2020D/S?
No, you cannot use it with the model.
【AS】Does the Sampler come with control software?
No, however, the control software for the Auto-Shot Sampler is included in the control software of the Pyrolyzer.
【AS】When a sample cup is dropped into the pyrolysis furnace or when the sample cup is retrieved, won’t the sample spill from the sample cup?
The amount of sample placed in a sample cup is normally less than 1mg; therefore the likelihood of spilling the sample is very low. If a large amount of sample is loaded in the cup, there is a possibility of spilling the sample. The volume of sample should be less than 50% of the cup capacity. Further, use some clean quartz wool to cover the sample. In Double-Shot analysis or EGA heart-cup analysis, because the sample cup moves up and down, we recommend that the sample should always be covered by quartz wool regardless of the amount of sample being analyzed.
【AS】What type of sample cups can be used?
Three types of sample cups can be used:
1. Deactivated stainless steel cup: Eco-Cup LF (80 µL). Use only undistorted cups which have been inspected by Sample cup inspector (included in the package).
2. Glass cup: Eco-Cup G (50 µL). Use only with the Cup chute with Teflon sheet.
3. Quartz coated glass cup; Eco-Cup GQ (50 µL). Use only with the Cup chute with Teflon sheet.
【AS】What are the precautions that need to be taken when loading sample into a sample cup.
The volume of sample should be less than 50% of the cup capacity. If a large amount of residues is expected, cover the sample with quartz wool. In Double-Shot and EGA heart-cut analyses, cover the sample with some quartz wool since the sample cup is moving up and down several times.
【AS】How much sample can I put in a sample cup?
The volume of sample may be up to 50% of the cup capacity. If a large amount of residues is expected, cover the sample with quartz wool.
【AS】Can I re-analyze a sample that has already been analyzed and recovered?
All recovered sample cups are collected in a single glass vial; thus, they lose their identity.
【AS】Is there any carry over contamination?
If the pyrolyzer is mounted correctly and functioning properly, there is no contamination from previously analyzed samples; however, the too much sample is put into the cup or if the samples consist of very fine (almost dust-like) particles, they can contaminate the tube in which the cup moves upon injection.. This can be prevented d by placing a quartz wool plug in the cup before analysis.
【AS】In the sequence table, when it comes to a position where there is no sample cup loaded, will the sequence be terminated at that position?
It will proceed without interruption, but there will be a blank run at this point in the sequence. The row is highlighted by yellow background in the sequence table.
【AS】If the Auto-Shot Sampler is removed from the Pyrolyzer, can I still use the pyrolyzer?
Yes, but leave the gas purge valve open.
【AS】Can the GC carrier gas be split and serve as the sample cup recovery gas?
Yes. When the carrier gas is shared with other analytical instruments, the gas used during sample cup recovery may affect other instruments. This is because the flow of carrier gas to the other instruments will momentarily change. For example, there could be a change in the baseline due to a momentary change in the FID make-up gas flow.
【AS】How much gas is consumed during the sample cup recovery?
About 1 litter of gas per every cup recovery is consumed.
【AS】Can nitrogen be used for recovering the sample cup?
Yes, but only if the carrier gas is nitrogen. Use the same gas as carrier gas.
【AS】What daily maintenance is required when using the auto-shot sampler?
Regular cleaning of the sample cup tray and sample cup passage is recommended. The cleaning frequency will be a function of the samples being analyzed. Routine monitoring of system function and inertness is recommended.
【AS】Can I use the Magic Chemisorber?
Yes, but you can only use the Magic Chemisorber S500. It is important to guard against contamination by atmosphere gas while samples stand by on the Auto-Shot Sampler’s tray.
【SS】Which model of GC can I install the Selective Sampler to?
Please see this compatibility table.
【SS】When the pyrolyzer is idle, can I conduct a GC analysis with the SS Selective Sampler installed?
There will be no problem if it is used in the split mode. With the SS adaptor attached, several mL/min of carrier gas are purging the flow path; therefore, the adapter must be removed from the bottom of the injector when performing splitless injection.
【SS】When the Selective Sampler is not in use, what should I do with it?
Turn the power of the Selective Sampler’s controller “on”. Turn the Sampling switch to the “ON” position. This will direct the sample introduced from the GC injection port to the separation column.
【SS】What is the reproducibility when conducting zone analysis of evolved gases (hear-cut EGA) using the Pyrolyzer and Selective Sampler?
Technical Note PYA1-070 describes the determination of a surfactant in mineral oil. The analytical system uses the Selective Sampler. The Relative standard deviation (RSD) of the peak areas was less than 5 % (n=5). Generally, the Selective Sampler will not degrade the basic performance of the GC, because it is based on Dean flow switching. When analyzing a temperature zone, the reproducibility will vary depending on the target components and thermal desorption conditions.
【SS】We would like to pyrolyze samples in air continuously in an automated fashion.
The Carrier Gas Selector and Micro-Jet Cryo-Trap are required. Also using the Selective Sampler together can shorten the air purge time before the GC analysis starts. For detailed procedure for the pyrolysis of samples in air, refer to technical note PYT-024E (Procedure for acquiring pyrograms in air and its automation).
【CGS】Which model of GC can I install the Carrier Gas Selector to?
Please see this compatibility table.
【MJT】Which model of GC can I install the MicroJet Cryo-Trap to?
Please see this compatibility table.
【MJT】Can I use the Micro-Jet Cryo-Trap as a stand-alone re-concentrator?
Yes, the MJT-1035E can be used in a stand-alone configuration – no Pyrolyzer is needed. In this case, the Cryo-trap is manually operated; however, it can be automated using control devices and or software from a third party.
【MJT】How much liquid nitrogen does it consume?
It consumes 20 mL/min when it cools to -190ºC and 15 mL/min in operating at -150ºC. The standard Dewar containing 2 litters of liquid nitrogen lasts for about an hour.
【MJT】What type of container do you recommend for liquid nitrogen?
A 2 litter Dewar is provided. Commercially available 10 or 30 litter liquid nitrogen Dewar can be used, but it will be necessary to replace the heat exchanger to accommodate the larger Dewar. Call your local distributor for details or contact us.
【MJT】What is the rate of nitrogen gas consumption?
When it is cooling to -190ºC (butane can be trapped), 7 L/min of nitrogen is consumed. When cooling at -150ºC (hexane can be trapped), 5 L/min is consumed.
【MJT】When it is not used, is it all right to leave the thermal exchange coil immersed in liquid nitrogen?
Even when it is not in use, it consumes limited amount of liquid nitrogen. When it is not in use for a short period of time, there is no problem to leave the thermal exchange coil immersed in liquid nitrogen; however, be sure to leave the nitrogen supply and the Cryo-trap stopcocks open so that nitrogen gas can flow. Failure to do so can clog the thermal exchange coil by frozen moisture in air.
When it is not used for a long period of time, take the thermal exchange coil out of the liquid nitrogen.
【FS】Can libraries compiled by Frontier Lab be searched with data generated on a GC/MS of any manufacturer?
The F-Search (PY-1110E) software is totally independent from the GC/MS analysis software offered by GC/MS manufacturers. F-Search is compatible with NetCDF MS data format used by all GC/MS systems manufactured by Agilent (MassHunter and ChemStation), JEOL (Q1500, Auto MASS, and K9), and Shimadzu. For NetCDF (AIA) conversion software, contact the manufacturer of your GC/MS.
【FS】What is the minimum configuration requirement for the PC?
A PC running either Windows 10, 8.1, 8, 7, Vista, or XP of 64/32 bit operating system for all languages.

See this page for details

【FS】Is there a trial version available?
30 day trial version of F-Search version 3.4 is available and can be downloaded from our website.
【FS】Can I use libraries of old versions with the latest search software?
Yes, when the new search software starts up, libraries of old versions will be automatically converted to ones with newer format.
【FS】How can I check the version number of the library that I am using?
The version number of library can be found in the filename of the library that starts with “MS”. The numeric and character follow “MS”. The larger number indicates a newer version. Character “B” is newer than “A”. The filename can be displayed by selecting from menu bar: “Library” – “Select Library for Search”.
【FS】I am using F-Search version 2.0 (PY-1082E or PY-1086E). Can I use Pyrolyzate-MS library?
No. To use the library, you need to purchase the latest version of F-Search software.
【FS】I am using F-Search version 1.0 (PY-1081E). Can I use additive library (ADD-MS library)?
No. To use the library, you need to purchase the latest version of F-Search software.
【FS】Can I buy just the MS Library software?
Yes. The MS Library of F-Search System consists of Polymer EGA, Pyrograms, Pyrolyzates and Additives Libraries. Each is sold separately. These libraries require search software (PY-1111E).
【FS】Can I upgrade my F-Search to the latest version?
Yes, if you have a version 3.0 or later, you can upgrade it to the latest version.
【FS】If I upgrade my search software, can I use the libraries I currently use?
Yes, you can.
【FS】How can I upgrade search software (version 3.0 or later) or libraries?
1. Make sure that you have finished user registration.
There are two ways to register your software. Check to see if you have completed registration by either of them. If you are not sure of your registration, contact your sales representative with the product number and serial number*a in hand.
(1) The license agreement has been signed, and sent back (or faxed) to Frontier Laboratories.
(2) A password has been obtained.
2. Contact your sales representative with the serial number in hand.
*a: Recorded in the license agreement and on the CD-ROM that come with the product.
*b: Recorded in a sheet of paper bundled with CD-ROM and operation manual.
【Con】What material are the Eco-Cups LF and SF made of? Is there any interaction between the Eco-Cup material and pyrolyzates?
The Eco-Cups are mode of stainless steel and the surface is coated by a thin quartz film. Therefore, there is very little interaction with pyrolyzates. However, repeated heating of the cups using torch flame can damage the surface and expose the stainless steel surface. It is recommended that the cup be tested, in advance, using a standard sample, especially in an analysis of vulnerable compounds such as brominated flame retardants.
【Con】What is the max use temperature of sample cups?
【Con】Are quartz pyrolysis tubes deactivated?
The surface of the quartz tubes is an inactive siloxane (SiO2) structure, therefore; no additional deactivation treatments are necessary.
【Con】Do all the Frontier pyrolyzer models share the same consumable parts?
The 2020 and 3030 series pyrolyzers have several parts that are the same. These include the Eco-Cup, Eco-Stick, Graphite Vespel ferrule, and the ITF (interface) union. Parts not shared include the pyrolysis tube and associated O-ring(s). All consumable parts are listed in the operation manual of your pyrolyzer. The consumable parts catalogue available.
【Con】Is there a list of consumable parts?
Please refer to the consumable parts catalogue or here.
【Con】What is the difference between the EGA capillary tube used for evolved gas analysis and a simple deactivated tube?
The chemistry of the inner surfaces of both tubes is the same. The EGA capillary tube used for evolved gas analysis (P/N:UADTM-2.5N) is designed specifically for evolved gas analysis (0.15 mm id, 2.5 m length, with cage) and is included with the Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and the Selective Sampler accessory. A general purpose deactivated tube (P/N:UADTM-5N) 5m X 0.15 mm id is available. It does not include a cage.
【Con】When do I use an Eco-Cup LF and when should I use an Eco-Cup SF?
Eco-Cup LF and Eco-Cup SF have the same inner diameter (3.6 mm) and the same surface deactivation, but they different in height: 8 mm and 5 mm, respectively.
Because the Eco-Cup SF is smaller, better reproducibility is generally obtained.
Eco-Cup LF is used in normal analysis, in particular, when analyzing a large amount of sample (several mg to several tens of mg). Also, whenever an Auto-Shot Sampler is used, it is essential that an Eco-Cup LF be used. See this page for details.
【Con】When do I use an Eco-Stick SF and when should I use an Eco-Stick DF?
The Eco-Stick SF is used when making “manual” – one sample at a time – pyrolysis experiments such as single-shot, EGA, and heart-cut EGA analysis. Eco-Stick DF is used in Double-Shot analysis. Note: when an Auto-Shot Sampler is used, an Eco-Stick is not used.
【Con】I just have purchased Eco-Cups; do I need to clean them before using for the first time?
Normally, there is no need to clean new Eco-Cups before using them. Eco-Cups are cleaned prior to shipping. However, if they are exposed to laboratory air for an extended period of time, or when performing trace analysis, ghost peaks originating from atmospheric contamination may be observed. To avoid these historic peaks, clean the Eco-Cups using volatile solvents such as acetone or dichloromethane before use. Also, care must be exercised in handling the (1) sample cup holders, (2) tweezers used in sampling, and (3) Eco-Pickup in order to prevent contaminations.
【Con】I understand that Eco-Cups are considered a disposable item, but is there a way to clean them so that they can be re-used?
Depending on the types of samples and analyses you are running, Eco-Cups can be reused, if they are properly cleaned. When reusing the cups, analysts must be able to judge whether it is acceptable or not for their analytical purposes. (Note: all the work below should be done in a hood and be careful not to burn yourself.)
1. Removal of large residues: Physically scrape off the solids remaining in the Eco-Cup with a soft rod such as a cotton swab.
2. Removal of residual polymer: Clean the polymer, which is not decomposed during the thermal desorption and remained in the Eco-Cup, with a suitable solvent that dissolves it.
3. Removal of residual organics: Heat the cup with a small torch flame to glow red for 2 – 3 seconds to remove residual organics (the inertness may decrease if the red heat time is too long). If a large number of Eco-Cups need to be cleaned, heating at 500 ºC for 5 – 8 hours in a muffle furnace under air atmosphere is a convenient way.
Note: Depending on the sample, inorganics or burnt residues (char) of polymer may remain in the Eco-Cup. In this case, remove them with a cotton swab and the like, then clean with a volatile solvent such as acetone. If the residues still persist, use a new Eco Cup.
【Con】Can Eco-Cups be reused in the analysis of brominated flame retardants (PBDE)?
When analyzing compounds susceptible to thermal decomposition such as brominated flame retardants and compounds which are very polar such as acids and bases, sample cups should NOT be cleaned and re-used. DecaBDE in particular may decompose (debrominate) during thermal desorption if the surface of the sample cup has any chemical activity. Frontier Labs has demonstrated that the DecaBDE response decreases over 30%, when an Eco-Cup is used 10 times.
【Con】Does heating an Eco-Cup by a torch generate active points? Or, are they generated under normal analytical conditions (e.g., 600ºC)?
As a general rule, active points are generated by sample residues in the cup and carbon material formed during the pyrolysis step or as the cup is “cleaned” using a propane or butane torch. Normal pyrolysis temperatures (e.g., <800ºC will not damage the sample cups. When analyzing compounds susceptible to decomposition such as brominated flame retardants, do mot heat the sample cup until it ‘glows’ red. Flame cleaning is a process that requires 2-3 seconds at the most. Excessive or prolonged exposure to a flame will damage the quartz surface.
【Con】What kinds of samples tends to be decomposed if active spots exist in Eco-Cup, pyrolysis tube, or GC injector insert? How about compounds with a large molecular weight, halogenated compounds or phthalates?
It is difficult to generalize the tendency of decomposition, however, compounds with a large molecular weight tend to thermally decompose due to the fact that the elution temperature is high in thermal desorption. Normal phthalates are not harmed by using the Eco-Cups.
【Con】How is the RoHS Cup LN different from the conventional Eco Cup LF?
Eco-Cup LF is highly deactivated by chemical bonding of the quartz thin film on its stainless-steel surface of the cup. On the other hand, RoHS Cup LN is a low-cost sample cup specially made for phthalates analysis.
【Con】For sake of cost saving, I would like to reuse the sample cup. Can RoHS Cup LN be reused?
RoHS Cup LN is single-use disposable. If you would like to reuse the sample cup, we recommend the use of Eco Cup LF whose surface has been highly deactivated. Some examples of cleaning methods of Eco Cup LF are shown. (Note: all the work below should be done in a hood and be careful not to burn yourself.)
1. Removal of large residues: Physically scrape off the solids remaining in the Eco-Cup with a soft rod such as a cotton swab.
2. Removal of residual polymer: Clean the polymer, which is not decomposed during the thermal desorption and remained in the Eco-Cup, with a suitable solvent that dissolves it.
3. Removal of residual organics: Heat the cup with a small torch flame to glow red for 2 – 3 seconds to remove residual organics (the inertness may decrease if the red heat time is too long). If a large number of Eco-Cups need to be cleaned, heating at 500 ºC for 5 – 8 hours in a muffle furnace under air atmosphere is a convenient way.
Note: Depending on the sample, inorganics or burnt residues (char) of polymer may remain in the Eco-Cup. In this case, remove them with a cotton swab and the like, then clean with a volatile solvent such as acetone. If the residues still persist, use a new Eco Cup.
Where can I find a list of Frontier distributors?
Frontier Lab’s products are marketed worldwide through manufacturers of GC and GC/MS systems and their distributors (see the list of distributors on the Frontier website). Alternatively, contact Frontier Laboratories Ltd. directly.
Can I purchase products at your oversea offices? What about after sale support?
There are many distributors (see the list of distributors on the web page). These distributors provide product support and service using local technicians who have been trained at Frontier Labs. In countries and areas where there is no distributor, please contact us.
Where can I purchase consumable parts and supplies for the Pyrolyzer?
Check with your local distributor.
Can you analyze our samples before we make a purchase decision?
For evaluation purposes only, we will accept analysis requests at no charge. Also, check with our local distributors to see if they are able to accept and process these requests.
Where can I see the product?
Check with your local distributor. If you would like to come to our facility in Koriyama, to actually see the product, contact us directly.
Do you demo equipment on-site?
We only demo equipment at our laboratory in Koriyama. Contact your Frontier distributor and ask what their policy is regarding on-site demos.
I would like to request a quote for the product.
We market our products through a number of distributors. Contact the manufacturer or distributor of the GC or GC/MS to be used with the pyrolyzer or go to our web site for a complete list of our distributors.
Describe how you support your products.
We only offer service at our facility in Koriyama, If you are interested in our annual maintenance plan, contact your local dealer.
Frontier Laboratories Ltd. or our distributors provide after sales support and services.